former Vice-President Machar himself has denied any involvement in a coup.
Machar claimed he was unaware of any attempt and blamed President Salva Kiir
for fabricating these allegations to settle political scores and target
countries and bodies made statements expressing "deep concerns over the
fighting" and urging all parties "to cease hostilities and exercise
restraint”. But it was Ethiopia who was immediately on the ground to help the
South Sudanese restore peace.
two days after the incident, Ethiopian Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr Tedros
Adhanom went to Juba leading a delegation comprising Foreign Ministers of
Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, and accompanied by the African Union
Commissioner for Peace and Security, the Special Representative of the
Secretary General for United Nations Mission in Sudan and a representative from
the Africa Union High Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP).
to Dr. Tedros Adhanom, the aim of the emergency visit to Juba, South Sudan was
"to gain first-hand knowledge of the situation on the ground, and discuss
ways to seek an all-inclusive and peaceful political settlement to the crisis
and an end to the days of fighting."
a few days later, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn went to Juba to
hold talks with President Kiir accompanied by Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta
and the Foreign Ministers of Ethiopia and Kenya, Dr Tedros Adhanom and Amina
Mohammed. The meeting focused on the cessation of hostilities, the immediate
start of talks to settle the crisis politically, the situation of the detainees
who are suspected for “attempting the coup” and the humanitarian crisis.
solution to this crisis should be through political dialogue” and added that
members of IGAD are working towards finding an amicable solution between the
parties". Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn and
Foreign Minister, Dr Tedros Adhanom travelled to Nairobi for an urgent IGAD
Summit which will focus mainly on South Sudan ongoing crisis. Leaders are
expected to discuss on the report from the meeting held with President Salva
for the third time, Dr Tedros is in South Sudan to follow-up discussions and
deliver Prime Minister Hailemariam's message to President Kiir. Ambassador
Seyoum Mesfin of Ethiopia is appointed as IGAD's special envoys for South Sudan
of to spearhead mediation and broker peace accord between President Kiir and
his former Vice President Dr. Riek Machar.
are also efforts to gather all stakeholders to participate in face to face
talks by 31st December 2013.
far, the progress is encouraging. Following the discussions, the President
committed himself to take a number of specific actions, including unconditional
dialogue with former Vice-President Machar and other political leaders in South
Sudan who had disagreed with their government’s position; a cessation of
hostilities; to using the good offices of IGAD to contact Dr. Riek Machar and
other members of the opposition, including Mme. Rebecca Nyanden. He said the
armed forces of the Government of Republic of South Sudan will ensure
protection of civilians and humanitarian workers; and that the dispute should
remain exclusively at the political level and not become an ethnic, sectarian
or tribal conflict.
positions sanctioned by the two parties in the conflict create difficulty to
start dialogue for the time being, however. President Kiir said he was willing
to sit down unconditionally and discuss with the former Vice-President, but
speaking from unknown place, Dr. Machar, who also said he was ready for
dialogue and was determined to end the fighting that had killed hundreds of
people and driven thousands from their homes, insisted that his detained allies
including Pagan Amum were freed. He said they should be allowed to go to Addis
Ababa. Once that happened, then dialogue could start immediately.
problem is not solved yet and Ethiopia continues playing a leading role to find
a political solution to the crisis in South Sudan.
commitment and highly visible role in the on-going efforts to restore stability
in South Sudan and the progress achieved so far is not an accidental rather a
logical outcome of her foreign policy.
gist of Ethiopia's Foreign and National Security is the “determination to
improve [citizens] lives by deploying everything for economic development and
democratization free from arrogance and adventurism”, which .was summed up by
the renowned scholar Alex De Waal as “Meles Zenawi doctrine”.
first objective of Ethiopia’s national security, not as having a strong
national defence force—however important that may be—but as human security for
Ethiopians. The centerpiece of what we might call the “Meles Zenawi doctrine”
of national security was promoting and defending national economic development.
For without the conquest of poverty, Ethiopia would remain weak and vulnerable,
no matter how many tanks and helicopter gunships it might be able to
prior to the preparation of the Foreign Affairs and National Security Policy
document in 2002, Ethiopia’s handling of neighborly relations were deeply
rooted in the principles of promoting peace, cooperation and economic
since the reform of the party in 2001-2, Ethiopia engaged with more clarity of
purpose to construct the architecture for the new economic and political
integration in the Horn that enables herself and the region to exploit the
opportunities to lift the people out of the quagmire of poverty and bring a
permanent end to instability. Ethiopia employed a careful and creative study of
its relations with every country—examining the best forms of integration with
the neighbors, and the best forms of development partnership that each
developed country had to offer.
led to a strategic engagement with neighboring countries, with emphasis on the
economic and infrastructural integration with all of its neighbors, especially
in terms of transport, communications, and energy.
to this is a parallel commitment to peace and security in the region.
Ethiopia’s strong desire for peace and stability in the Horn of Africa is
central to all its regional policies. Peaceful neighbors are good trade
partners and regional stability enables a country to focus resources on
addressing poverty and the development of good governance and the democratic
the challenges faced both in terms of unruly neighbors or ideological crusaders
of all varieties, Ethiopia today enjoys largely cordial, indeed beneficial,
relations with dozens of partners around the world.
in the face of high-handed tactics and at times violence, Ethiopia has taken
care to avoid conflict at any level as far as possible in the clear
understanding that only more progress in both poverty reduction and good
governance can create the real answer to such ‘spoilers’ in the region. It has
achieved excellent relations with almost all its neighbors on the basis of
policies designed to encourage the highest levels of economic cooperation as
well as close and friendly political and security relations based on mutual
trust and confidence.
central factor in Ethiopian policy in the Horn of Africa has been its aim to
build and cement relations with all its neighbors on the basis that economic
links are the bedrock of sustainable policies. This is what underlies
Ethiopia’s involvement in, and commitment to, regional bodies such as the Inter
Governmental Authority for Development, and its continuous support for the
regeneration and revitalization of the Authority.
two-fold approach paid off both in terms of the anti-poverty effort and the
strengthening of Ethiopia's national security.
example, Ethiopia's relation with Kenya reached a historic level of cooperation
and bonds of close friendship. The close links between Ethiopia and Kenya have
been particularly visible in the way the two countries have constantly
supported each others positions in international forums in many different
areas. Ethiopia and Kenya share a common understanding on such issues as
cross-border terrorism, piracy, regional integration under the umbrella of IGAD
and the prime importance of peace and security in the Horn of Africa and
beyond. Their common involvement in IGAD provides a significant indication of the
strength of their relationship. Both countries have consistently demonstrated
their common interests through the organization, their support for revitalizing
IGAD and for ensuring that it provides the basis for one of the AU's Regional
and Kenya have also cooperated closely over cross-border problems. One
important element has been successful in organizing and expanding community-led
peace initiatives in areas all along the border, including the Maikona and
Dukana Peace Accords that have significantly reduced violent incidents among
communities on the borders while enhancing peaceful interaction and resource
cooperation bore fruits in economic matters as well. Both countries have
embarked upon a number of joint development programs in road construction,
commerce and trade and other areas. Ethiopia has been exploring the
possibility of using Mombasa as a port, and is taking a keen interest in the
discussions about the creation of a new port at Lamu and the possibilities of
rail links with other areas. One major new project has been the development of
the Omo River valley which alarmed some conservationists in Kenya, worried
about the impact on Lake Turkana. In fact, the series of dams in the Omo
Valley, in particular Gilgel Gibe III, will generate nearly 2,000 MWs of
hydro-electric power. A significant amount of this will go to Kenya, and as
Kenya’s Environment Minister said “Gilgel Gibe III should brighten not threaten
Ethiopia and Somalia are now enjoying all-round relations despite the scars
left by past regimes. Since 1991, the two countries had entered a new stage of
working for mutual cooperation, which had allowed the relationship to build on
a solid foundation. They currently enjoyed consolidated relations in the areas
of peace, security and economy on the basis of mutual trust and benefit.
people and government of Somalia have developed solid trust and confidence that
the people and government of Ethiopia were cooperating in the areas of peace,
security, economy and politics. There are also agreements at ministerial level
to ensure a healthy economic integration. The people and government of Somalia
gave credit to the sacrifices paid by the Ethiopian forces to maintain peace
and security in their country.
relationship between our two brotherly people by far predates our official
relations. Our people living on both sides of our long border have always been
a bridge connecting our two sisterly Countries. For most South Sudanese,
Ethiopia is a second home where they trace their birthplace, started their
first education and found their partners in life. On the Political front,
regardless of political persuasions all governments in Ethiopia had recognized
their just cause and had supported their long march for freedom. These are
strong foundations on which our current and future relations can be built.
relation with South Sudan is indeed another showcase of Ethiopia's responsible
and far-sighted foreign relations direction. During the six year interim
period, before the independence of South Sudan, the governments of Ethiopia and
South Sudan had taken important steps to consolidate our bilateral relations.
Umbrella agreement on technical, economic, social and cultural cooperation was
signed on December 2007. On the basis of this agreement, the government of
Ethiopia has provided limited capacity building support in the form of
scholarships and trainings to South Sudanese personnel.
the formal deceleration of South Sudan's independence last July new avenues for
consolidating our bilateral relations have been created. Both countries have
upgraded their missions to an embassy level and have appointed Ambassadors to
each other's country. Various spheres of cooperation agreements are now on the
table. These sectoral agreements are expected to transform the general
framework agreement signed in 2007 into concrete framework of cooperation and
bring the dream of closer cooperation into fruition.
Ethiopia has persistently used multilateral institutions like IGAD, COMESA, the
AU, the UN and other institutions to pursue shared interests. This is not
confined to infrastructure and economic development. It also aims to build
political trust and discourage disorder in the region. Ethiopia has played a
major role in supporting IGAD’s peace and security activities, including the
Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan and the peace process for Somalia. It
has been active in deterring cross-border conflicts in pastoral areas through
IGAD’s Conflict Early Warning Response Mechanism (CEWARN).
Ethiopia has become a very real force for peace in the East Africa region.
Enjoying the trust of both Khartoum and Juba, it has been brokering efforts to
resolve the disputes between South Sudan and Sudan. It has sent troops to the
joint UN – AU peacekeeping force in Darfur (UNAMID) to help maintain peace and
stability in that troubled region. It has also deployed 4000 troops in Abyei to
maintain peace and stability for the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei
(UNISFA). Again, it has cooperated with the Somali government to fight
terrorism and extremism. It has been playing a vital role facilitating dialogue
and providing support to enable the Jubbaland administration and the Federal
Government of Somalia to work jointly in building the Federal State of Somalia.
Ethiopia's active role in the current crisis in a demonstration of her
pragmatic and scientific Ethiopia's foreign policy, which is summed up as:
policy in the Horn of Africa should, like all our other policies, be free of
different sentiments and proceed from a sober analysis of the situation,
keeping in constant view our development and democracy agenda. It should
understand that the success of our development and democratization has a
positive contribution not only to Ethiopia but to all neighbors as well; and
that a policy that is free of arrogance and greed would contribute to changing
the entire region. These are the premises on which our policy is based.
the other hand, although our neighbors have little direct influence on our
eco-nomic development, their role could grow in time, and as they would then
have a bigger capacity to adversly affect our peace, our policy should focus on
developing the culture of dealing with contradictions through discussion and
negotia-tion while reducing our vulnerability to danger and to ad-dress
security threats appropriately."