Ethiopia image radically changed via multinational federalism

Articles and Analysis

Ethiopia image radically changed via multinational federalism


Qalibessa Olana

December 08, 2010


Ethiopia has been experienced acute social, political, economic, identity crisis and cultural shock for much of 20th century. This crisis was the result of conflicts and contradictions that developed against the forceful creation of multi- national state of Ethiopia on unequal and unjust relations, irrational legacies and homogenization by culture oppressing and enserfing indigenous peoples under much of 20th century. Until 1991 Ethiopia was “home of nations”, but the system not recognized that reality. Ethiopia is inhabited by more than 80 ethno-national groups with their differences.

These different diversity was not accommodated rather the system suppressed the indigenous people for effective centralization and domination. The indigenous peoples were alienated from their land, identity and political powers. This process causes conflicts, tensions, civil wars and contradiction against nature of the state, which was traditionally exclusive, highly centralized and used for dominating the larger majority of the people through the employment of force. Consequently, as time past different ethno-national groups, peasants, students and people of Ethiopia, which took the form of class, ethnic, religious and regional dimensions began to struggle and pose pressure against oppressive , exploitative and centralized system. These challenges questioned the nature of the state, its impact and position of the majority of Ethiopian ethno-national groups under the system.

As the result the struggle for human and democratic Rights, freedom, equality, justice and for self determination intensified by student movement first and liberation fronts in 1970s and 1980’s.

The national question, structured on Ethic- National criterion due to the politicization of Ethnicity by empire builders, who justified the holder of state power are only the descendant of ruling groups to the extent of family as legitimated to rule Ethiopia by their legacies of Fetha Negist and kebere Negist.

As the result, national liberation fronts organized themselves along Ethno- national bases to fight against problem creator nature of the state and to get independent, to achieve equality; freedom and betterment which reach its climax in 1991. The more centralized and dictatorial Dergue regime removed from power, who postponed one burning issue of Ethiopian nations, nationalities and peoples questions during his period, which turn the country in endless civil and scourge of war for almost one century. The removal of Dergue declared the answer for nations, nationalities and people’s questions of equality, freedom, democracy, justice in the country. Peace and democracy are understood by political actors as bases for development and can only be achieved when and only when nations, nationalities and peoples demands and interests are absolutely answered by engineering the structure of the state along multinational criterion of Ethiopian people. Regarding to this, different conferences were held in early (1990s) and political engineers apply the best engineering design for the country geo-political building.

This political building engineering address all rounded socio-cultural economic environment of the country and allow Ethiopian nations, nationalities and peoples to handle their own affair by their own groups and organizations. Accordingly fundamental democratic, human rights, right of equality in all aspect for Ethiopian nations, nationalities and peoples and their popular sovereignty were recognized by FDRE constitution in 1995 ,basic document of Ethiopian multinational federalism, which is the base for equality, justice, democracy and means to accommodate diversity within unity adopted. This  solved the deep-rooted national questions and filled the political rift created by political traditions of the country until 1991.Fedealization in Ethiopia revived the freedom and right of ethno-national groups to administer themselves and made the political environment pluralistic while upholding liberalization of the economy and democratization of political arena.

Ethiopia really becomes “museum of nation” through its multinational federalism. This arrangement has been made Ethiopia stable and peaceful as compared to the previous period and other volatile horn African countries in economic, political and socio-cultural context. Ethiopian nations, nationalities and peoples now became the sole power holder and ready to develop their country on equal bases for their wellbeing on decentralized and empowering federal system.

Federalization in Ethiopia beyond enabling the county to bring ample and larger resources for development, it also empowers each region for using its resources effectively and efficiently by non-centralization principles. Ethiopia is the third populous country in Africa - meaning it has huge human resource, market and also one among the larger country of Africa-meaning has huge natural resources and even called as the “water tower of the horn of Africa” and has good and diverse ecological climatic zones for developmental goals. By having this opportunity now the country becomes hopeful for development and prosperity by mobilizing its ample resources that are not utilized for development and peace building process before in the land. The best model of federalism that fits to the Ethiopian context was engineered. The federalism that make former USSR and now USA power full states of the world now applied to Ethiopian. Ethiopia was named “basket of bread” many centuries ago. Now a golden opportunity is opened to erase the name of the “poverty” and ‘war’ from Ethiopia by mobilizing all human and material resources to development and developmental agendas escalated in the country’s political economy discourse

Time is come surprisingly for Ethiopian renaissance as it was described as ancient civilized country in the Bible and proofed archeologically the origin of human being.The country by its multinational federalism become the real manifestation of the origin of human culture, identity, and make nations ,nationalities and peoples and different religions co-exist peacefully by the central motto of Equality and unity in diversity for development.

Since adoption of multinational federalism Ethiopia becomes “New land “for its citizens and foreigners .due to Ethiopian federalism engineering system campaign for development intensified to erase deep-rooted poverty is in a good path now. From 1995 onword most resources which previously diverted to civil war and consumed by unaccountable leaders of the country now mobilized for development and construction purposes.

The new sun rises for Ethiopia for its prosperity, development and hope for hegemony due to all rights respected and injustice systems and practices now pen planed and removed.

As the result, the country is now ready for operationalizing its human and natural potential resources for development. The country intensifies prodution educated man power to use it as the sole resource for development and for its society well being. So that Ethiopian federalism is the arrangement of reviving and preserving human identity and dignity for prosper humanity.


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